General requirements for safety technology of the

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General requirements for safety technology of heat treatment

1. poisons, toxic gas and dust

toxic substances should be directly applied in many processes of heat treatment, such as three acids (nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid), caustic soda, soda ash, molten lead and metal salts

(1) using barium chloride as heating medium, the maximum temperature is 1300 ℃. Barium chloride will evaporate in large quantities

(2) a large amount of ammonia is used in the nitriding process, and part of the ammonia will be discharged into the atmosphere with the waste gas in the production process

(3) application of cyanide salt in liquid carburizing, cyaniding and soft nitriding processes

(4) organic substances such as gasoline, methanol, acetone and kerosene will volatilize in large quantities during use

(5) carbon monoxide is the main component in the gas and the protective atmosphere for heat absorption and release

(6) the molten nitrate in the nitrate bath furnace reacts with the workpiece oil stain in a hot state to produce brown toxic gas (nitrous oxide and other nitrogen oxides)

(7) during gas soft nitriding, cyanate radical is generated after methanol and ammonia enter the furnace and interact with each other

(8) for the final blast cleaning of heat-treated workpiece, quartz sand is used, resulting in a large amount of silica dust

2. electric shock

there is no oil flowing out of the oil return pipe of the oil delivery valve. The heat treatment workshop consumes a lot of electricity. Many furnaces use electric heating equipment, such as water, oil pump, blower and exhaust fan, which are driven by motors. In addition, many electric equipment use high-voltage electricity (for example, high-frequency equipment can be up to 15kV). During operation against rules, electric shock and electric injury accidents will occur

3. flammable and explosive

some oils (gasoline, kerosene and diesel) and organic substances (methanol, ethanol, acetylene, propane, butane, acetone and banana water) used in heat treatment are flammable and explosive substances. Due to improper operation of the heat treatment furnace using gas and liquid fuels, furnace explosion accidents often occur

the quenching process of heat treatment sometimes requires that the workpiece heated to above 800~900 ℃ be directly quenched into oil or cooled by oil spray, which is easy to cause fire

4. scald

many heating media for heat treatment use molten metal salts (barium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride and sodium carbonate). Once the molten metal salt meets with water or steam, it will explode with the molten salt, which will splash and scald people. As a "cooling" medium, the low-temperature nitrate salt bath will cause serious burns once it touches the skin, although the temperature is 150~200 ℃. In addition, hot workpieces, hot oil and hot water bath for cleaning are also easy to cause burns

5. falling and bumping

various platforms and pits are set up in the heat treatment workshop due to the process needs. It is necessary to climb and go to the pit during operation. It is also easy to cause falls and bruises

6. thermal radiation and light radiation

the temperature of many heat treatment processes is as high as 900~1280 ℃, and the operator should operate in front of the furnace, especially when the workpiece enters and leaves the furnace, the worker is exposed to high-temperature radiation. When the temperature is above 1000 ℃, the strong light radiation will stimulate the operator's eyes, which will be damaged after a long time

7. electromagnetic radiation

when the high-frequency heating equipment for heat treatment is working, it emits 250~300khz electromagnetic wave, which is harmful to human body within 3M. The RF sputtering coating equipment developed in recent years will emit 6 × 10 < sup > 6 </s synthetic resin lotion exterior wall coating gb/t 9755 ⑵ 001up > ~3 × 10 < sup > 8 </sup > Hz UHF electromagnetic radiation

there are so many harmful substances and unsafe factors in the production of heat treatment, we must have enough understanding of them, so as to take effective measures to minimize the pollution in the UK and Germany, and to avoid accidents


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