Generation and exchange of the hottest electronic

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The generation and exchange of electronic documents


in the printing process, the generation and processing of electronic images and the transmission of electronic data have had a great impact on the printing and publishing industry. At present, in the industry, the Ministry of design and science and technology issues the special plan for scientific and technological innovation in the field of "1035" materials, and various electronic information needs to be exchanged in the process of composing. Moreover, driven by the competitive pressure of faster printing cycle, the transmission of electronic data between prepress and printing departments has become more and more common. The printing elements involved in the printing and publishing industry, except for the special computer software used, are all simple pages and page elements

ddap Association, CGATS subcommittee 6 (an ANSI organization) and ISO Technical Committee 130 (image technology) have been working hard to establish a common standard format for printing process. Swop also strongly advocates the use of various standards in various fields, but it is also aware that it is sometimes impossible to achieve under the current conditions. There are more than 20 copper intensive processing enterprises with more than 1billion yuan in Tongling Economic and Technological Development Zone. The exchange medium of electronic files can be directly transferred or used as the carrier of file transfer through physical removable media. There are many options in this field, and many changes will take place in the next few years. But if you want to transfer data in a standard format, the first thing to consider should be the cost, time and equipment compatibility. Similarly, it is better to have a certain choice between the receiver and the transmitter. In this regard, swop did not provide a suggestion on the choice of direct transmission and transmission through media, but specifically pointed out that the exchange of "business" materials and advertising related samples by these two methods should be prepared in advance

the generation, processing and transmission of electronic images are very important. Improper processing will affect the quality of images. In the traditional production process, there are many opportunities for visual inspection of samples and films, and errors can be found. Therefore, the same confirmation steps must be included in the all electronic workflow

only when all participants in the workflow communicate fully during the transmission of each electronic document can it become an efficient and fully digital workflow. In order to avoid potential problems, the swop Committee recommends that the following requirements be met in any prepress production scheme. They generally exist in standard systems and are not included in informal or non-standard systems

1. The first requirement is in the field of job data transmission. Any electronic data transmission process must have a list of electronic operation requirements, such as the list of prepress data exchange requirements published by GCA. The list shall not only contain the information about operation management (printing time and place, etc.), but also include the determination of the electronic data format and other relevant materials

2. The second requirement is to take the exchange of swop samples as a feedback cycle to avoid changes in data and information during transmission and to detect the quality of images. Colors often change between different devices, unless the color management system is fully functional and has a full range, and relevant personnel have adopted standard ICC characteristic documents (based on ansi/cgats tr 001 color characterization data). Publishers should also review the final tiff/it file or PDF file to ensure the integrity of the file

data architecture

there are two different data architectures in the printing technology industry, namely, color prepress system (CEPs) and desktop publishing (DTP) system. Although these two architectures are based on different principles, they are widely used in the production process

there are many file format types (such as text, vector, raster, etc.). CEP and the tearing expansion speed is directly related to the stretching speed of the gripper. S platform specially uses raster format - pictures, text and line art are all expressed in different raster forms. The grating method provides predictability in direct digital color proofing (DDCP) system, composition and plate making system


dtp platform uses a special page mosaic format and page description language to treat text, line drawings and pictures as different image "objects", each of which has a different representation, such as the scanned picture as a raster file, the text as a positioned string plus a scalable font, and the line draft (graphics) as a vector file. This method is more direct and easy to group pages. For example, it is very simple to replace individual elements in this method. In addition, the creation process of this method has nothing to do with the final rasterization device, so it is flexible and the generated file is small. The main difference between these two methods is the degree of restriction on specific output devices

at present, there is no perfect DTP digital exchange standard, but many special file formats or program language specifications have become the standards in practical applications. There are many choices or extensions, and each combination may be very unique. Although postscript code is an exchange format commonly created by these proprietary formats and application software, other formats can also be generated to realize file exchange. In addition, many intermediary digital file formats have emerged, and PDF has become a public file format. Moreover, CGATS is preparing to define a standard that applies PDF to printing technology

The exchange of electronic files from


ceps to CEPS can be successfully realized through tiff/it P1 file format. ISO 12639 also defines tiff/it P1 file format. This work is for it8, Graphic technology - Prepress digital data exchange - extension of tiff/it. Tiff/it format is a file format designated by swop for exchanging electronic documents in magazine publishing, which is particularly ideal in workflow with multiple printing locations

ceps or system platform

dtp and CEPS format all continuous tone (CT) pictures are stored in the form of continuous tone raster data (the pixel information of a rectangular grid represents the hue value on the picture). Since the yellow, magenta, cyan and black values of each pixel need four bytes to record (one byte for each color), the picture file is relatively large. The only way to shrink a file is through data compression

artistic line (LA for short), sometimes referred to as line manuscript (LW for short), refers to the "raster" description of line art, text and other non picture information. This requires the use of color tables or palettes and repeated elements of print quantity coding. The electronic file thus formed is much smaller than the picture data in the same physical space

the third file format, high resolution continuous modulation (HC), is mainly used to provide HC data in the edge area of pictures and the overprint area of text and pictures. It also requires the print quantity coding of repeated elements, and the document is relatively small

since these documents describe physical images electronically, traditional cept technology must be used. This includes document replacement and/or electronic cutting and pasting

desktop platform

desktop platform is usually also called DTP platform. Raster files and vector format files are usually mixed in the process of electronic page typesetting. This makes it easy for text and line elements, and can delay the final page description until the output image step

the scanned picture data is stored as raster files in the same way as the CEPS system. These files are common in both architectures. The text "Object-Oriented" description uses strings, and each character defines information to identify the font outline. The outline of these fonts is mainly represented by image drawing sequence and raster. (font information is also embedded in the personalized service file for users.) The image drawing sequence used in these object-oriented descriptions is mainly based on geometric information (lines, curves and other shapes are accurately described by drawing on the XY axis). These description files contain less dense data and are therefore smaller than line raster files

to reach the final output device, you can use vector software to create a postscript data stream and send it to the output device. Usually, postscript files are not available. Because it takes advantage of the unique characteristics of the output device, the usual postscript files are often specific to a specific output device

post script language

generally, you can see the use of postscript language to drive printers, imagesetters and other output devices on all DTP systems, which does not mean that the standard can be canceled. In a specific printing process (especially in advertising and Publishing), different hardware and software are constantly used in the processing process, and postscript files cannot be returned to the application software package for further processing. Moreover, postscript languages are often created by specific output devices. When output raster image processors (RIPs) from different manufacturers process the same postscript file, the results may be quite different. Therefore, the recipients of electronic documents can never confirm how documents are processed in the production process. Therefore, ddap and CGATS have decided to choose other file formats as the standard format for file transmission

portable file format (PDF)

adobe systems introduced PDF format in mid-1993, and introduced relevant file formats to other users, which can be used without any license or authorization. Based on the imaging mode of postscript language, PDF files describe text and pictures in a device and resolution independent manner. Moreover, it defines a more structured format than most postscript language programs, and solves many problems in font exchange by embedding output fonts in files. In addition, it can describe output files created by DTP software that creates postscript files. It is estimated that with the development of new software, PDF files will be more powerful than any postscript files

cgats subcommittee 6 is currently trying to define a PDF implementation standard to ensure that all the performance required for the exchange of final version pages in the printing process can be fully realized. (note that "page" here is used to represent all materials as a single entity - it can be a partial page, a complete page, or a multi page physical area.) These requirements are based on a variety of inputs. The most important thing is to include various elements, including advertising materials, in the requirements document of the ddap Association. In addition, CGATS SC6 also defines the characteristics of the final page generated by other software, and obtains relevant data through other industry organizations, such as GCA, IPA, GAA, etc

although version 1.2 of adobe PDF application contains many newly developed features, it can not meet all requirements, and a higher version needs to be launched. CGATS believes that PDF files may meet the needs of the printing industry, and is ready to launch an executive standard for using Adobe PDF in the printing process

other electronic documents

other than tiff/it (and PDF, once appropriate standards appear)

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